Assorted resources about the Allwinner Nezha D1 RISC-V development board

Some useful links


Power supply

Robert Lipe explains why Apple hardware and Nezha D1 do not work together using a USB-C to USB-C cable. It should be possible to work around the problem using the USB-A to USB-C cable(s) supplied with the board.

SPI NAND layout

Kernel 5.4.61 (as reported by Gabe R):

# cat /proc/mtd
dev:    size   erasesize  name
mtd0: 00100000 00040000 "boot0"
mtd1: 00400000 00040000 "uboot"
mtd2: 00100000 00040000 "secure_storage"
mtd3: 0fa00000 00040000 "sys"

In this thread Samuel Holland notes that this partitioning is an effect of Allwinner firmware, which is not compatible with upstream Linux.

Kernel 5.16.0-rc2:

# cat /proc/mtd
dev:    size   erasesize  name
mtd0: 10000000 00020000 "spi0.0"

The same stands for kernels in the Ubuntu 22.04 image below.

Serial console

The USB serial adapter that comes with the board connects to the 3-pin "DEBUG" header on the board as follows:

Peter Gutmann notes that the supplied serial cable can be faulty. If this is the case, it needs to be replaced with a serial adapter that uses 3.3V levels.


With kernel 5.16.0 (which is available in some disk images and does not boot by default) it is possible to control the RGB LED of the board, which is labelled "LED" and sits next to the red "PWR" LED:

echo 0 50 50 >"$LED"/multi_intensity
echo mmc0 >"$LED"/trigger

The same stands for kernels in the Ubuntu 22.04 image below.

Temperature sensor

Some kernels (at least those in Ubuntu 22.04 disk image) support the temperature sensor built into the board/chip:

# sensors
Adapter: Virtual device
temp1:        +32.2°C  (crit = +110.0°C)

Some files (may be mirrored, or not)

Filename and DescriptionPacked SizePacked SHA-1Unpacked SizeUnpacked SHA-1Notes
Ubuntu Server 22.04.4, xz-compressed plain disk image
790528876 bytes
(753.91 MiB, 790.53 MB)
0dac7769e4158fd316545836ba2af66b0e0454cf 4831838208 bytes
(4.50 GiB, 4.83 GB)
580239513fa651ff8bd274b95c74af6ea2bd4527 13, 14
Ubuntu Server 23.10, xz-compressed plain disk image
1033695920 bytes
(985.81 MiB, 1033.70 MB)
f31ee724a0248f1203e034b0184bd514bc57c431 4831838208 bytes
(4.50 GiB, 4.83 GB)
2f072ce3c5c8467101466039fb35e396859802d1 13
Ubuntu Server 22.04.3, xz-compressed plain disk image
775841376 bytes
(739.90 MiB, 775.84 MB)
87b02e0f5e70a070d701df0b4ab1ddb7650b7d71 4831838208 bytes
(4.50 GiB, 4.83 GB)
e2361b78d4528e0160b9bae3489dd520ecc38dc1 13, 14
Ubuntu Server 23.04, xz-compressed plain disk image
811976084 bytes
(774.36 MiB, 811.98 MB)
b38697d318572ef298b2439878313378b4b05587 4831838208 bytes
(4.50 GiB, 4.83 GB)
02e7fec90171b27a976fb06003d18ef7e6e28b57 13
Ubuntu Server 22.04.2, xz-compressed plain disk image
754729720 bytes
(719.77 MiB, 754.73 MB)
d1fde1b94576d92b728b534f44b32521140da420 4831838208 bytes
(4.50 GiB, 4.83 GB)
3df9b820fc8357b5ed9ca80c9d27bfbd7a68e2f9 13, 14
boot log for the above
    64026 bytes    
Ubuntu Server 22.10, xz-compressed plain disk image
762542840 bytes
(727.22 MiB, 762.54 MB)
994e5bca0b916d8a06e655804e384b6e491fb7d1 4831838208 bytes
(4.50 GiB, 4.83 GB)
f191586649c62ad35142fdbad6153007e435a651 13
Ubuntu Server 22.04.1, xz-compressed plain disk image
787562356 bytes
(751.08 MiB, 787.56 MB)
f65ec64b9730a2dea307f5411457c15ee792c422 4831838208 bytes
(4.50 GiB, 4.83 GB)
065ec1585e06b1964d53088f4f5779115b746ce4 13, 14
boot log for the above
    20150 bytes    
Fedora, zstd-compressed plain disk image
2497462045 bytes
(2.33 GiB, 2.50 GB)
a81789198c1190c311a7b0c117046ded8830e605 13589544960 bytes
(12.66 GiB, 13.59 GB)
4781a8d449a497d2df0e545b791b351211c08e90 6
Fedora, zstd-compressed plain disk image
(original file)
3060402609 bytes
(2.85 GiB, 3.06 GB)
aadb8ca1fcd0b67f1f65466ab31418a1eb0ca030 13589544960 bytes
(12.66 GiB, 13.59 GB)
f18e69e165ef5520e0b36cb93241572b60b5de9d 6, 7, 8, 10, 11
boot log for the above Fedora image (kernel 5.4.61 via original U-Boot, extlinux and manual input)
    79549 bytes   7
Fedora, zstd-compressed plain disk image
(original file)
2949853513 bytes
(2.75 GiB, 2.95 GB)
46d9baf4c2ab47bb476cee0ec5c68ab5fcd58929 13589544960 bytes
(12.66 GiB, 13.59 GB)
5fa09af0a1af148f7fe70a97aaf028ee47899fe0 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
boot log for the above Fedora image (kernel 5.4.61 via original U-Boot, extlinux and manual input)
    76059 bytes   7
boot log for the above Fedora image (kernel 5.16.0-rc2 via custom U-Boot, GRUB and manual input)
    73595 bytes   8
custom D1-1GB bootloader block for the above Fedora image
    1384960 bytes
(1.32 MiB, 1.38 MB)
8ac5752e14ef8db5cc6d82d26e70684c05e4d4eb 9
OpenWrt boot log
    39125 bytes   5
U-Boot default environment and available commands
    5053 bytes   5


By Gary E. Miller.
As published on Fedora RISC-V wiki and openkoji service of Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The Linux kernel in this disk image does not auto-detect the RAM size, but uses a hard-coded size from a DeviceTree file. Each boot menu item has its own DeviceTree file, and the default boot menu item (1) stands for 2 GB:
Fedora-riscv64-d1-developer-xfce-with-esp-Rawhide-20210912.n.0 Boot Options.
1:      Fedora-riscv64-d1-developer-xfce-with-esp-Rawhide (5.4.61+ 2G)
2:      Fedora-riscv64-d1-developer-xfce-with-esp-Rawhide (5.4.61+ 1G)
3:      Fedora-riscv64-d1-developer-xfce-with-esp-Rawhide (5.4.61+ 512M)
4:      Fedora-riscv64-d1-developer-xfce-with-esp-Rawhide (5.4.61+ 128M)
Enter choice: 1:        Fedora-riscv64-d1-developer-xfce-with-esp-Rawhide (5.4.61+ 2G)
Retrieving file: /aw_nezha_d1_2G.dtb
If you try to use more RAM than the D1 board actually has, it will sooner or later crash. The following commands can be used to change the default to 1 GB:
# For the 2021-09-12 revision:
echo 'default Fedora-riscv64-d1-developer-xfce-with-esp-Rawhide (5.4.61+ 1G)' >>/boot/extlinux/extlinux.conf

# For the 2021-11-30 revision:
echo 'default Fedora-riscv64-d1-developer-xfce-with-esp-Rawhide (5.4.16.riscv64.fc33.riscv64 1G)' >>/boot/extlinux/extlinux.conf

# For the 2022-01-17 revision:
echo 'default Fedora-riscv64-d1-developer-xfce-with-esp-Rawhide (kernel-5.4.61 HDMI 1080p 1G RAM)' >>/boot/extlinux/extlinux.conf
To boot the latest kernel, this image requires booting through GRUB. This can be done manually during the boot sequence as follows:
Importing environment from mmc0 ...
Autoboot in 2 seconds  <---------------------------------- press "v"
[Nezha]# run boot_grub
4681728 bytes read in 808 ms (5.5 MiB/s)
Scanning disk mmc@4020000.blk...
Scanning disk mmc@4021000.blk...
Disk mmc@4021000.blk not ready
Found 4 disks
No EFI system partition
Booting /\EFI\fedora\grubriscv64.efi
Welcome to GRUB!
The following command can be used after booting to have U-Boot load GRUB by default:
echo 'bootcmd=run boot_grub' >>/boot/boot/uEnv.txt
When booting the latest kernel from this image, it will use the RAM size provided by U-Boot, not the RAM size in DeviceTree files. However, U-Boot in this image has the RAM size hard-coded to 2GB, so to work with the latest kernel on D1-1GB this image requires to replace the bootloader with a custom version (provided by Fu Wei):
dd if=fedora-2021-11-30_D1-1GB_bootloader.bin bs=512 seek=32800 of=/dev/mmcblk0
All files hosted here are stored as ZIP archives, so if the original file is not a ZIP archive, the mirror copy has an extra ZIP container around it. This way, a .zip file is stored as is, but a .raw.zst file becomes a file, the "Packed Size" column refers to the .raw.zst file and the "Unpacked Size" column refers to the .raw file, and so on.
In this image U-boot is hard-coded to 2GB RAM and there is no replacement version as of time of this writing. Also kernel 5.4.61 does not detect the MTD. Also GRUB defaults to the 2GB RAM menu entry and uses incorrect DeviceTree file paths. The error messages about the paths can be squelched using the commands below:
sed --in-place=.orig 's/\/dtbs\/5.16.0+\//\/5.16.0-rc2+\//g' /boot/grub.cfg
# 0 is the default (2GB), 1 is 1GB
sed --in-place 's/^set default=0/set default=1/' /boot/grub.cfg
However, kernel 5.16.0 in this disk image disregards DeviceTree data anyway and boots assuming 2GB RAM (possibly using the memory size from U-boot). In all likelihood this disk image cannot boot kernel 5.16.0 on D1-1GB.
The file is available for download here, additional information is available here.
This image by default omits much of the boot progress from the serial console (Ubuntu bug 1994072). Clang 14 package was broken (Ubuntu bug 1994071), but has been fixed now. Updating the GRUB packages makes the system unbootable (Ubuntu bug 2011744), which can be worked around as follows:
dpkg --set-selections <<EOF
grub-common hold
grub-efi-riscv64-bin hold
grub-efi-riscv64 hold
grub2-common hold
u-boot-nezha hold